There are many written and spoken languages throughout the kingdoms of Roshar.


Alethi script and glyphs are commonly used in Alethkar. Since reading and writing are considered feminine arts; Alethi script is used solely by women and Ardents, while men learned only glyphs.

All glyphs are vertically symmetrical, and the written Alethi script is horizontally symmetrical around the line on which it is written.

Known Terms
Accents and Dialects Mentioned


Kingdom or Country: Bavland

  • Kurp: Child in the local Bav dialect.[4] Stated by Szeth.


Dawnchant: An ancient language spoken by the Radiants in Dalinar's visions.

The Vanrial sing chants that they believe were written in the Dawnchant, though all knowledge of its meaning or translation has been lost.[5]

  • "Anak malah kaf, del makian habian yah ... ." "To be Human is to want that which we cannot have." Dalinar spoke this while in one of his visions.
Navani responds, "It's a line from a song, ... A chant by the Vanrial ..."
"... songs they claim were written in the Dawnchant by the Heralds themselves." [5]


Kingdom or Country: Herdaz

  • Gon (pronounced 'gone'): Lopen used this when referring to Kaladin upon first meeting him.
"We Herdazians are great fighters, gon."[6]
  • Gancho: the term by which Lopen refers to Kaladin.
  • Moolie: means mute.[6]


Kingdom or Country: Iri


Kingdom or Country: Kharbranth



Kingdom or Country: Azir


Kingdom or Country: Emul


Kingdom or Country: Tukar


Kingdom or Country: The Shattered Plains

  • Neshua Kadal!: The Parshendi began to call this to each other before they fled from Kaladin.[6][7]


Kingdom or Country: Selay lands


Kingdom or Country: Shinovar


Kingdom or Country: Thaylenah

  • "Shaylor mkabat nour.": "The winds have brought us safely." (A phrase of thanks.)[9]
  • "Mkai bade fortenthis!": meaning unknown.[9]
  • Babsk: possibly, master. Rysn, who is apprenticed to Vstim, refers to him as her babsk.[8] Iyatil is babsk to Mraize.[10]
Accents and Dialects Mentioned
  • Yalb spoke in a rural Thaylen dialect.[9]

Unkalaki Edit

Kingdom or Country: Unkalaki (Horneaters)

  • Numuhukumakuaki'aialunamor: Rock's real name.[11]
Translates as a description of a special rock his father found. The entire name is a poem.
  • Ali'i'kamura: referenced by Rock as a protector.[12][9]
  • Alaii'iku: meaning unknown. Rock called himself this as an explanation to why he could see Syl.[11]
  • Alil'tiki'i: meaning unknown. Might refer to Rock's title or rank.
Rock ... " ... we would have to duel in the traditional alil'tiki'i fashion." [13]
Rock, after he had shaved ... "I feel like a true alil'tiki'i again!" [14]
  • Holetental : "Is of the holetental. For him only." (Rock, referring to the Surgebinding Kaladin has done.)[15]
  • Humaka'aban: refers to the beard, sideburns, pattern that Rock wears.[14]
  • Kaluk'i'iki : Rock says to Kaladin, "I shall name you my kaluk'i'iki". When no one gets the joke he explains that only a woman can be a kaluk'i'iki. It does not mean wife.[12]
  • Mafa'liki: spren. Referring to Syl, Rock names her thusly.[11]
  • Nuatoma: leader or chief.[16]
  • Uli'tekanaki: some type of god or guiding spirit or being.
Rock says ... "By the Uli'tekanaki, Kaladin. I almost beleive you'll do it." [17]
Rock says ... "The Uli'tekanaki guide you" to Kaladin.[3]
  • Umalakai'ki! ... Kama mohoray namavau ... ": meaning unknown. Rock bellowed this when they checked on Kaladin after the storm.[18]
  • Umarti'a: means cousin.[16]


Kingdom or Country: Jah Keved

Native language of Shallan and House Davar. Veden is similar to Alethi.[19]

Cosmere: DuladenEdit

Kingdom or Country: Duladell, Cosmere World: Sel.

Duladen[20] is a language spoken on Sel, the planet on which the city of Elantris is located

  • "Alavanta kamaloo kayana" : (something something) crazy.[21]
Spoken by the foreigner Grump at the conclusion of the meeting with Ishikk the fisherman.[22]